Wm. S. Merrell Bromo-Chloral (Cannabis Chloral Hydrate) Advertisement

Recipe for Liquor Bromo-Chloral Compositus

79. LIQUOR BROMO-CHLORAL COMPOSITUS
Compound Solution of Bromo-Chloral

Chloral Hydrate..................................3.5 ounces 182.75 Gm.
Potassium Bromide.............................3.5 ounces 182.75 Gm.
Tincture of Cannabis Indica................. 6 fluidrachms 41.65 mils
Tincture of Orange Peel.......................6 fluidrachms 41.65 mils
Henbane Juice.................................... 3 fluidounces 165.55 mils
Syrup................................................ 3.75 fluidounces 187.5 mils
Fluid Extract of Licorice.......................0.5 fluidounce 25.0 mils
Water, sufficient to make.....................20 fluidounces 1000 mils

Dissolve the potassium bromide and chloral hydrate in 8 fluidounces (400 mils) of water. Mix all the other ingredients, and add the foregoing solution ; then filter and wash the filtrate with sufficient water to make 20 fluidounces (1000 mils).

Dose, 0.5 to 2 fluidrachms (2 to 8 mils).

Excerpt from The Canadian Formulary of Unofficial Preparations 1921: Approved and adopted by the Canadian Pharmaceutical Association, (pp. 28-29).

Chloral Hydrate

Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. The name chloral hydrate indicates that it is formed from chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) by the addition of one molecule of water. Its chemical formula is C2H3Cl3O2.

It was discovered through the chlorination of ethanol in 1832 by Justus von Liebig in Gie├čen.[2][3] Its sedative properties were first published in 1869 and subsequently, because of its easy synthesis, its use was widespread.[4] It was widely used recreationally and misprescribed in the late 19th century. Chloral hydrate is soluble in both water and alcohol, readily forming concentrated solutions.

Adverse effects

Long-term use of chloral hydrate is associated with a rapid development of tolerance to its effects and possible addiction as well as adverse effects including rashes, gastric discomfort and severe renal, cardiac and hepatic failure.[8]

Overdosage

Acute overdosage is often characterized by nausea, vomiting, confusion, convulsions, slow and irregular breathing, cardiac arrhythmia, and coma. The plasma, serum or blood concentrations of chloral hydrate and/or trichloroethanol, its major active metabolite, may be measured to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to aid in the medicolegal investigation of fatalities. Accidental overdosage of young children undergoing simple dental or surgical procedures has occurred. Hemodialysis has been used successfully to accelerate clearance of the drug in poisoning victims.[9]

Excerpt from Chloral Hydrate

Abstract

This article compares the careers of two psychotropic drugs in Western psychiatry, with a focus on the nineteenth century: Cannabis indica and chloral hydrate. They were used by doctors for similar indications, such as mania, delirium tremens, and what we would now call drug dependence. The two show similar career paths consisting of three phases: initial enthusiasm and therapeutic optimism; subsequent negative appraisal; and finally, limited use. These cycles, which we term "Seige cycles," are generally typical of the careers of psychotropic drugs in modern medicine. However, differences in the careers of both drugs are also established. The phases of chloral show relatively higher peaks and lower valleys than those of cannabis. Chloral is the first typically "modern" psychotropic drug; a synthetic, it was introduced in 1869 at a time of growing asylum populations, pharmaceutical interests, and high cultural expectations of scientific medicine. Cannabis indica, introduced in the 1840s, is typically a "premodern" drug steeped in the climate of cultural Romanticism. We conclude that the analytical concept of the Seige cycle is a useful tool for future research into drug careers in medicine.

Abstract from Snelders, Kaplan, & Pieters 2006 article On cannabis, chloral hydrate, and career cycles of psychotropic drugs in medicine,

Merrell Cannabis Chloral Hydrate.jpg
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